День рождения У. Шекспира

В мире отмечают 450 лет со дня рождения Шекспира

William Shakespeare

В Великобритании и во всем мире 23 апреля отмечается 450-летие со дня рождения величайшего английского драматурга и поэта Уильяма Шекспира, который по сей день остается самым популярным автором постановок мирового театра.

 Настоящий день рождения Барда, как называют его в Британии, история не сохранила. Известно лишь, что крещен он был 26 апреля. По традиции этот день отмечается одновременно с датой смерти национального английского поэта - 23 апреля, который совпадает с праздником святого Георгия - небесного покровителя Англии.

Творческое наследие Шекспира включает 38 пьес, 154 сонета, четыре поэмы и три эпитафии. Как и подобает гению эпохи Возрождения, Шекспир имел множество талантов. Он не только писал, но и ставил свои пьесы, был руководителем актерской труппы под названием Слуги короля, игравшей в театре «Глобус». Пьесы Шекспира переведены на все основные языки и ставятся чаще, чем произведения других драматургов.

Выражения, вошедшие в английский язык из произведений У. Шекспира

"Alas, poor Yorick"  - «Увы, бедный Йорик»

"All the world's a stage" - «Весь мир - театр»

"Brutus is an honourable man" - «Он римлянин был самый благородный»

"Et tu, Brute?" - «И ты, о Брут!»

"If music be the food of love, play on" - «О музыка, ты пища для любви! Играйте же [любовь мою насытьте]»

"Frends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears" - «Друзья, сограждане, внемлите мне»

"Every inch a king" - «Король, король - от головы до ног!»

William Shakespeare, often called the English national poet, is widely considered the greatest dramatist of all time.

                          

 Though little is known about William Shakespeare's personal life, his works such as "Hamlet," "Romeo and Juliet," and "King Lear," have influenced literature and theater for over 400 years.

Mysterious Origins

Known throughout the world, the works of William Shakespeare have been performed in countless hamlets, villages, cities and metropolises for more than 400 years. And yet, the personal history of William Shakespeare is somewhat a mystery. There are two primary sources that provide historians with a basic outline of his life. One source is his work—the plays, poems and sonnets—and the other is official documentation such as church and court records. However, these only provide brief sketches of specific events in his life and provide little on the person who experienced those events.

Early Works: Histories and Comedies

With the exception of Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare's first plays were mostly histories written in the early 1590s. Richard II, Henry VI (parts 1, 2 and 3) and Henry V dramatize the destructive results of weak or corrupt rulers, and have been interpreted by drama historians as Shakespeare's way of justifying the origins of the Tudor Dynasty.

Shakespeare also wrote several comedies during his early period: the witty romance A Midsummer Night's Dream, the romantic Merchant of Venice, the wit and wordplay of Much Ado About Nothing, the charming As You Like It and Twelfth Night. Other plays, possibly written before 1600, include Titus Andronicus, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

Later Works: Tragedies and Tragicomedies

It was in William Shakespeare's later period, after 1600, that he wrote the tragedies Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth. In these, Shakespeare's characters present vivid impressions of human temperament that are timeless and universal. Possibly the best known of these plays is Hamlet, which explores betrayal, retribution, incest and moral failure. These moral failures often drive the twists and turns of Shakespeare's plots, destroying the hero and those he loves.

In William Shakespeare's final period, he wrote several tragicomedies. Among these are Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest. Though graver in tone than the comedies, they are not the dark tragedies of King Lear or Macbeth because they end with reconciliation and forgiveness.

 

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